How To Name Acids
Acid- molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anion
Without Oxygen on Anion
Suffix- anion with ic at end
With Oxygen on Anion
Anion ends in ate - change ending to ic
Anion ends in ite - change ending to ous
Examples Part I
HCl- hydrogen + chlorine = hydrochloric acid
HCN- hydrogen + cyanide = hydrocyanic acid
Examples Part II
H2SO4 - anion is sulfate = sulfuric acid
H3PO4 - anion is phosphate = phosphoric acid
H2SO3 - anion is sulfite = sulfurous acid
HClO- hypochlorite = hypochlorous acid
Answers and Explanations Part I
1.) Hydrobromic acid
Why: No oxygen in anion. All that is needed is hydro- plus the anion with the suffix –ic.
2.) Nitric acid
Why: Has the anion nitrate which contains oxygens. No hydro- is needed with oxygen present and change the suffix of –ate to –ic to get the name.
3.) Acetic acid
Why: Has the anion acetate which contains oxygen. No hydro- needed with oxygen present and change suffix of –ate to –ic to get name.
Acids Practice Problems Part II
Give the chemical formula of the following acids
1.) Periodic acid
2.) Hydrofluoric acid
3.) Arsenic acid
Answers and Explanations Part II
Why: No hydro- in the name so anion must contain oxygen and end in –ate since name shows acid ending in –ic. Periodic corresponds to the anion periodate which is IO4.
Why: Hydro- shown in name so anion does not have oxygen. Fluoric corresponds to fluorine which is F.
Why: No- hydro shown so anion contains oxygen and end in –ate since name shows acid ending in ic. Arsenic corresponds to anion arsenate which is AsO4 and since it has a charge of 3-, 3 hydrogens must be used to balance the charge.